Hyperplastic, or overdevelopment, symptoms are galls, tumor-like swell ings; curl or blister, coming from excessive growth in portions of leaves; and scab, a raised lesion. Signs are evidences of disease or injury produced by the plant enemy itself-fungus fruiting bodies or mycelium, insects, or their eggs, cast skins, or excrement. The following pages provide a quick guide for the determination of types of garden enemies according to signs and symp- toms (the patterns) on the various plant parts-root and crown, stem, foliage, bud and flower, and fruits. It gives you a start on your detective work, and you can check your guess in Chapter II where types of garden enemies are described in alphabetical order, with diagnostic sketches, and a few specific examples. Chapter III, with a tabulation of some of the more common enemies under the different host plants, provides a further check on your diagnosis. The emphasis in this book is purposely on recognition of pests rather than on control. If you can answer the question, "What is it?" then the question, "What do I do about it?" can be answered from many sources. Chapter IV gives a list of chemicals presently available, and suggestions for use are given in the discussion of each pest, but to keep up to date you must rely on current garden magazines and garden pages in newspapers. The chemical picture changes from week to week; the biological patterns remain the same.
Chief Sign or Symptom Probable Pest or Disease Described Under
Rough, roundish bump at crown or on larger roots. Crown Gall (Fig. 30B) Galls
Small, nodular swellings in roots. Root Knot (Fig. 41A) Nematodes
Roots swollen into ""fingers."" Club Root Club Root
Roots eaten back from tip, witches' broom effect on boxwood. Meadow Nema- todes Nematodes
Roots of yew, other evergreens, eaten off by small white grubs. Black Vine Weevil (Fig. 63B) Straw- berry Root Weevil Weevils
Roots riddled by maggots; seedlings wilt. Rusty tunnels in root. Onion, Cabbage Maggot (Fig. 35) Carrot Rust Fly Maggots
Small, white or gray lice on roots, bulbs. Root Aphids Aphids
Soil loose and granular, or in mounds. Ant Nest Ants
Summer mounds in lawn; large wasps. Digger Wasps (Fig. 59A) Wasps
Small tunnels in soil, in South. Mole Crickets (Fig. 25) Crickets
Large tunnels with ridges in lawns or garden beds. Moles Mammals
Grass brown, roots eaten by large white grubs. Larvae of May or June Beetles (Fig. 7B) Beetles
Grass brown, can be rolled back like a carpet, smaller white grubs. Larvae of Japanese or Asiatic Beetles (Fig. 7A) Beetles
Grass brown in patches, cannot be rolled back, minute black and white bugs. Chinch Bugs (Fig16)" Bugs
Seedlings dying soon after germina- tion. Damping-off Damping-off
Plants rotting at crown; reddish sclerotia, white mycelium at base. Crown Rot, Southern Blight (Fig. 44C) Rots