Types of Garden Enemies
. They winter as larvae, there being but one generation a year. Eggs, larvae, and adults have all been spread in nursery stock, but this is now regulated by strict quarantine, with fumigation or other treatment required before shipping.

Control. DDT worked into the soil, 1 pound of 10% dust to 432 square feet, gives excellent results.

IMPORTED WILLOW LEAF BEETLE (Plagiodera versicolora),
in Middle Atlantic states, attacking poplars as well as willows. The small metallic- blue beetle, only 1/8 inch long, looks much like a flea beetle. It eats small holes in leaves, but the flat, bluish-black larva, tapering toward the end of the abdomen, skeletonizes foliage, feeding from the underside. Adults hibernate under bark, lay eggs on leaves in late April or May, and larvae feed for about a month. Weeping willows are almost always being eaten in June.

Control. Spray thoroughly with lead arsenate or DDT when first larvae appear.

A few birds are rather definitely garden enemies, but the vast majority are good friends even though they may get to the strawberries and cherries before we do.

Crows injure corn by digging up the seed, pulling up sprouts, or feeding on ears. Starlings, congregating in trees, may make it impossible to sit in the garden. Most woodpeckers help free trees of borers and ants, but the yellow-bellied sapsucker likes the sap and inner bark of trees, injuring them with a series of holes in rings around the trunk. Pines and apples are frequently injured, occasionally killed, in this way. Wrapping trunks with burlap or tough paper during the time of heavy sap flow offers some protection. Scotch pine may need it particularly. Crow repellents, on the market under a number of trade names, are used for treating seed before planting. Papier mache owls sometimes frighten starlings away, and strips of aluminum foil swinging in the sun may keep a few birds from fruits, but covering strawberry beds or small trees with netting is surer.

There is always agitation about the effect of poisons used in sprays on bird populations. In general, if the minimum amount of chemical is used to produce desired results, there is no great harm to wildlife, but strong sprays, particularly during the nesting season, should be applied with due care.

The word blight is used to describe a disease characterized by sudden and conspicuous damage to leaves, shoots, or flowers. The infected tissue is directly invaded and killed by bacteria or fungi. In this a blight differs from a wilt where there is a disturbance of the vascular system, often at some distance from the wilting portion.

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