. They winter as larvae, there being but one generation a year. Eggs, larvae, and
adults have all been spread in nursery stock, but this is now regulated by
strict quarantine, with fumigation or other treatment required before
Control. DDT worked into the soil, 1 pound of 10% dust to 432
square feet, gives excellent results.
IMPORTED WILLOW LEAF BEETLE (Plagiodera versicolora),
in Middle Atlantic states, attacking poplars as well as willows. The small metallic-
blue beetle, only 1/8 inch long, looks much like a flea beetle. It eats small
holes in leaves, but the flat, bluish-black larva, tapering toward the end
of the abdomen, skeletonizes foliage, feeding from the underside. Adults
hibernate under bark, lay eggs on leaves in late April or May, and larvae
feed for about a month. Weeping willows are almost always being eaten
Control. Spray thoroughly with lead arsenate or DDT when first larvae
A few birds are rather definitely garden enemies, but the vast majority
are good friends even though they may get to the strawberries and
cherries before we do.
Crows injure corn by digging up the seed, pulling up sprouts, or feeding on ears. Starlings, congregating in trees, may make it impossible to
sit in the garden. Most woodpeckers help free trees of borers and ants,
but the yellow-bellied sapsucker likes the sap and inner bark of trees,
injuring them with a series of holes in rings around the trunk. Pines and
apples are frequently injured, occasionally killed, in this way. Wrapping
trunks with burlap or tough paper during the time of heavy sap flow
offers some protection. Scotch pine may need it particularly.
Crow repellents, on the market under a number of trade names, are
used for treating seed before planting. Papier mache owls sometimes
frighten starlings away, and strips of aluminum foil swinging in the sun
may keep a few birds from fruits, but covering strawberry beds or small
trees with netting is surer.
There is always agitation about the effect of poisons used in sprays on
bird populations. In general, if the minimum amount of chemical is used
to produce desired results, there is no great harm to wildlife, but strong
sprays, particularly during the nesting season, should be applied with due
The word blight is used to describe a disease characterized by sudden
and conspicuous damage to leaves, shoots, or flowers. The infected tissue
is directly invaded and killed by bacteria or fungi. In this a blight differs
from a wilt where there is a disturbance of the vascular system, often at
some distance from the wilting portion.