Types of Garden Enemies
DOGWOOD BORER (Thamnosphecia scituld).
A white caterpillar with a brown head, larva of a clear-wing moth, works in cambium of flowering dogwood, often causing death of limbs. Remove outer dead bark where borers overwinter and keep bark smooth at base of limbs. Paint with DDT.

DOGWOOD TWIG BORER (Oberea tripunctata).
This common twig girdler is a yellow grub, larva of a long-horned beetle. It works in the center of twigs, which die back to that point, and in elm as well as dogwood. Prune twigs above the grub.

EUROPEAN CORN BORER (Pyrausta nubilalis).
This is a widespread and destructive pest, not only to corn, with losses in the millions each year, but to many other herbaceous plants. The borer, a flesh-colored caterpillar with a dark head and black dots, about an inch long, winters in old stalks and pupates in spring. Yellowish-brown moths, emerging from June to August, lay eggs in clusters on underside of corn or other leaves. In about a week young larvae start feeding in the developing leaf whorl and on the tassels, then tunnel downward in the stalk and into the ears. Tassels are broken, stalks bent, and there are sawdust castings from holes in the stalk. The corn borer is frequently found in dahlia stalks.

Control. Dust with DDT or Ryania, directing it into center of whorls. Promising new chemicals include heptachlor and lindane. Clean up and burn all old corn and dahlia stalks.

FLATHEADED APPLE TREE BORER (Chrysobothris femorata).
Trees are killed in the nursery or the first few years after transplanting, the borer being more important on deciduous shade trees than on apples. The yellow-white grub, 11/4 inches long, is distinctive for the broad, flat enlargment of the body just back of the head and a habit of lying with its body curved to one side (Figure 15A). The beetle is gray to brown with a blunt head, 1/2 inch long. The burrows are broad but shallow, packed with sawdust, on main trunk and branches, often on the sunny side. Large areas of bark are killed or trees girdled.

Control. Wrap trunks after transplanting, winding strips of tar-lined paper, heavy wrapping paper, or several layers of newspaper spirally from the tree crown, always overlapping half the strip; hold securely by winding twine in the opposite direction. Wax emulsions, antidessicants, are sometimes suggested in place of wrapping. The wrapping should be maintained for 2 or 3 years and new trees kept growing vigorously by proper feeding and watering. Trees that have not been wrapped can perhaps be saved by going after the borers with a knife.

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