Types of Garden Enemies
Control. Avoid wounds; prune out infected branches, working only in dry weather, and sterilize tools between cuts. Fertilize to renew vigor. Spraying lower branches of spruce 2 or 3 times in spring with bordeaux mixture or a fixed copper may reduce infection.

CATERPILLARS
Caterpillars are the wormlike larvae of moths and butterflies. They have chewing mouthparts and soft, cylindrical, smooth or hairy bodies. They have one pair of jointed legs on each of the first 3 body segments and short, fleshy, unjointed prolegs on other segments. True caterpillars have no more than 5 pairs of prolegs (thus differing from sawfly larvae which have 7), and these prolegs have little hooks or crotches which help in clinging to a leaf or twig. There is complete metamorphosis. Caterpillars pupating in a silken cocoon change into moths, those with a naked chrysalid become butterflies.

BUDWORMS
are small caterpillars that winter in silken cases in twigs near buds and in spring web terminal foliage together. The SPRUCE BUDWORM (Choristoneura fumijerana) is the nation's top-ranking forest enemy and comes next to the cotton-boll weevil and corn earworm in a list of destructive insects in general. It is also troublesome to spruce, fir, larch, hemlock, and pine in ornamental plantings in northern United States. The caterpillar is an inch long when grown, brown, covered with yellow tubercles. It bores into opening buds and cuts off and webs needles together. Tops of trees appear as if scorched by fire; heavily infested trees die.

Control. In forests, airplane dusting with DDT at the rate of 1 pound per acre has controlled the spruce budworm without bird mortality. Birds themselves are helpful, credited with eating ioo to 300 caterpillars per tree. Spray ornamentals with DDT just after buds break, using 2 pounds 50% wettable per 100 gallons of water.

Other species of budworms or budmoths bore into apple buds or rose buds, feed on flowers and seed capsules of verbena, snapdragon, iris, etc., but can be controlled with DDT or lead arsenate. One small greenish caterpillar with a shiny dark head ties together terminal leaves of hydrangea over the flower bud into a little pocketbook. It is sometimes pos- sible to tear this open and kill the budworm with your fingers before it ruins the flower bud.

CANKER WORMS,
inch worms, measuring worms, periodically defoliate fruit and shade trees, especially oaks and elms, through much of the country. They are commonly destructive in the East and considered more damaging to shade trees in the Middle West than any other insect.




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