Types of Garden Enemies
As they eat down to the cob they leave masses of repulsive moist castings. As tomato fruit- worms, larvae feed on foliage and fruit, moving restlessly from one fruit to the next and over onto bean and other vegetables. As budworms the caterpillars may attack rose, chrysanthemum, gladiolus, calendula, dahlia, and other flowers.

Control. Dust corn silks with 5% DDT every 3 days for 3 or 4 applications, or inject 1/4 teaspoon mineral oil into base of the silk mass as soon as it looks wilted. Spray or dust buds of ornamentals with DDT, toxaphene, or chlordane. Dust tomatoes in early fruit stages with DDT or cryolite.

EASTERN TENT CATERPILLAR (Malacosoma americanum).
This species is present east of the Rocky Mountains, and there are related forms in the West. Conspicuous, ugly nests appear in wild cherries along the roadsides and in fruit trees-apple, peach, and plum-in hawthorns and other ornamentals. Eggs are laid in a brown, varnished collar around twigs (Figure 22A). The young caterpillars hatch in very early spring- often late March-and gather in a colony at a fork of nearby limbs to construct their webbed nest, from which they go forth to feed on foliage. Wild cherries are stripped bare, unsprayed fruit trees badly ravaged.

The caterpillars are up to 2 inches long, black with a white stripe down the back, bordered with reddish brown, a row of oval blue spots, and covered with long, tan hairs. Toward the end of their feeding season the larvae often swarm down houses and feast on roses and other shrubs before making white cocoons on tree trunks, garages, or other objects. The moths are light reddish brown with 2 diagonal stripes across each forewing. They lay their egg masses around twigs in early summer, and these remain until spring, there being but one generation a year.

Control. So far as possible cut off twigs bearing the egg collars in fall or winter. Wipe out nests while caterpillars are still young, wrapping the mess in newspaper for burning in the incinerator. Do not burn nests in the tree with a flaming torch. This is most injurious to the tree and all too often brings out the fire department. Dusting the nest with sulfur or spraying with any contact insecticide will kill young larvae. Fruit trees are protected by any spraying program including lead arsenate or DDT.

Fig. 23

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