Types of Garden Enemies
Meanwhile the injury has come from the egg-laying process, with twigs and small branches breaking, and young fruit trees sometimes killed. There are several broods, which emerge in different years in various sections. There is also an annual or dogday cicada which lacks the red eyes and legs of the periodical species and does not make such an obnoxious noise.

Control. TEPP kills cicadas actually hit with the spray. Protect valuable young fruit trees with mosquito netting in flight years. Prune off dead twigs after egg-laying.

CLUB ROOT OF CABBAGE and other crucifers (Plasmodiophora brassicae). The root system becomes a distorted mass of large and small swellings, sometimes several roots swollen like sweet potatoes, sometimes in one massive gall; roots are often scabby and fissured. All plants in the crucifer family, including alyssum, honesty, candytuft, stock, and western wallflower, may be infected as well as cabbage, cauliflower, radish, turnip, mustard, etc. The first symptom is a wilting on hot days; plant may be stunted and not head; outer leaves turn yellow and drop. Slime mold spores formed in the roots are liberated in the soil and can survive for many years between crops. They are spread in drainage water, manure, and plant refuse.

Control. Inspect seedlings carefully before setting out; use a long rotation.

Crickets are related to grasshoppers, insect order Orthoptera, with chewing mouthparts but gradual metamorphosis. Snowy tree crickets injure tree and bush fruits by the punctures made to deposit eggs in canes or twigs. Field crickets sometimes feed on fruits and vegetables. Mormon and Coulee crickets, nearer to katydids than true crickets, damage all field and garden crops in the Rocky Mountain area. Most of the cussing of southern gardeners, however, is reserved for mole crickets.

MOLE CRICKETS (Scapteriscus vicinus and Gryllotalpa hexadactyld).
These are brown, covered with velvety hairs, 11/2 inches long, with large hind legs and front legs adapted as shovels for burrowing through the soil (Figure 25). Except for size, the tunnels are like those of regular moles, and roots of lawn grasses and all kinds of garden plants are destroyed.

Control. Baits of Paris green and sodium fluosilicate have been used in the past, but at present chlordane seems to be giving effective control.

Fig. 25

Curculio is the name given to a beetle with its head prolonged into a long, curved snout, with mouthparts at the tip. Most species are important as fruit or nut pests.

PLUM CURCULIO (Conotrachelus nenuphar).
East of the Rocky Mountains this insect is very important on stone fruits, peach, plum, and cherry, and on apple is second only to codling moth in injury. Surface of the fruit is scarred and distorted by feeding of the adult.

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