Types of Garden Enemies
fig. 29

EUROPEAN EARWIG (Forficula auricularia).
This introduced earwig was discovered in Rhode Island in 1911 and on the West Coast soon after; since then it has appeared in widely scattered localities. It is dark reddish brown, hard, 4/5 inch long, with forceps about one-fourth the length of the body protruding from the abdomen. These forceps are large and curved in the male, rather straight in the female. The front wings are rather short, and the hind wings are folded up under them. The female lays a batch of eggs in early spring and broods over them until they hatch (Figure 29), then watches over her young until the first molt, after which she lays another batch of eggs.

Young nymphs feed on green plant shoots, flowers, or vegetables; older earwigs feed on blossoms, fruits, and vegetables, sometimes other insects. They work at night and often crawl into houses. Control. Standard control has been by means of a bait, using 6 pounds of wheat bran mixed with 1/2 pound sodium fluosilicate and moistened with 1 pint of fish oil. Lindane is now recommended (4 teaspoons Isotox Garden Spray per gallon of water), and dieldrin is a recent possibility. All infested places should be sprayed thoroughly.

GARDEN FLEAHOPPER (Halticus bracteatus)
is the only species of interest to gardeners. It is a sucking insect in the order Hemiptera, the true bugs, looking something like a small black aphid but resembling a flea beetle in its jumping habit. It is 1/10 inch long or less and winters as an adult in weeds. Many vegetables and ornamentals are attacked, the leaves getting pale spots caused by the sucking of greenish nymphs. Control. Two applications of DDT dust give good control. Nicotine sulfate and soap is fairly effective. Keep weeds destroyed.

Flies are in the order Diptera, which means 2-winged, thus differing from other insects with 4 wings. The larvae are maggots, and some species are discussed under that heading. They are soft, white or yellowish, footless worms without much head, and they pupate in brown capsules called puparia. Some flies are important beneficial insects, some cause wormy fruit or bulbs, some are leaf miners.

CARROT RUST FLY. See under Maggots.
CHERRY FRUIT FLY (Rhagoletis cingulata).
This is a white-banded fly common in northern United States on cherry, pear, and plum. In conjunction with the black cherry fruit fly (R. fausta) it causes most of our wormy cherries. The black and yellow flies, somewhat smaller than houseflies, emerge from brown puparia in the soil in late spring. They feed on leaves and fruit in a scraping-sucking process and lay eggs in fruit through small slits. The maggots feeding inside cause misshapen, undersized cherries. When mature, the maggots leave the fruit and drop to the ground.

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