Types of Garden Enemies
CROWN GALL (Agrobacterium tumefaciens).
This is a very serious bacterial disease which shows up in the form of one or more rounded galls with irregular rough surfaces at the crown of plants near the soil line-often at the bud or graft union on roses-and sometimes with smaller enlargements on the roots. On euonymus aerial galls are frequently formed along the vine. Crown gall affects more than 40 plant families. It is very common on rose, raspberry, blackberry, and other brambles, may damage fruit and nut trees, and sometimes affects young shade trees, perennials, and a few vegetables. The bacteria are in the soil and infect healthy plants only through wounds. They are spread on tools in propagating operations and in cultivating, and sometimes are carried in irrigation water. They come to the home garden in galls on new nursery stock and after the original plant dies can live a year or two in the soil ready to infect the healthy replacement.

Control. Be very suspicious of all rose, raspberry, etc., plants you buy. If there are any galls, either large or small, do not remove them and plant anyway. Burn the specimen or return it to the nursery for replacement. Not all enlargements are crown gall-some are merely excess callus growth, but you cannot tell in casual observation, and it does not pay to take a chance. Do not wound stems in cultivating.

Grasshoppers are the true locusts. They have biting mouthparts but a gradual metamorphosis. The front wings are somewhat thickened and narrow, with distinct venation, the hind wings broad and folded, fanhke when at rest. Like crickets and the beneficial praying mantis they belong to the insect order Orthoptera. In the West migrating swarms of grasshoppers destroy all green things in their path. There control measures are on a cooperative basis, with large-scale application of toxaphene, chlordane, aldrin, or poisoned baits. Even in the East grasshoppers sometimes ravage foliage in home gardens, and dusting with chlordane or other poison is advisable.

Different species of the same fungus are responsible for most of the diseases characterized by overgrowth deformities known as leaf blisters or leaf curl.

LEAF BLISTER OF OAK (Taphrina caerulescens).
This is said to be the most conspicuous disease of street oaks in the South and is an occasional problem in other sections. Convex blisters on the leaves, up to 1/2 inch across, grow together causing leaves to curl and drop. Trees are sometimes killed with repeated defoliation.

Control. In experimental spraying Puratized Agricultural Spray applied in late February and early March (in North Carolina) has given good control.

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