Types of Garden Enemies
Control. Use a copper spray, starting when new leaves appear and repeating 2 or 3 times at 2-week intervals. Or just remove the most disfigured leaves and forget about it; the disease does not seriously reduce plant vigor.

VIRGINIA CREEPER LEAF SPOT (Guignardia bidwellii f. parthenocisst).
Leaves of Boston ivy and Virginia creeper are often covered with angular, reddish to brown spots, dark brown at the margin, with very minute black dots in the center. There may be rather serious defoliation.

Control. Properly timed bordeaux sprays, starting as the new foliage appears and repeating 2 or 3 times, are fairly effective, but the spray residue is nearly as disfiguring as the disease. Fermate is less conspicuous and should be satisfactory.

Fig. 35

Maggots are the footless larvae of flies, and some have been discussedi under that heading.

APPLE MAGGOT (Rhagolethts pomonella)
also called railroad worm. This; is a native insect, found east of the Dakotas, which causes brown tunnels inside apples, with the flesh breaking down into an ugly brown mass in early varieties or into corky streaks in late varieties. The flies, slightly smaller than houseflies, with black bands on the abdomen, emerge from puparia in the soil from late spring to July, feed for about 2 weeks, then lay eggs in fruit. White maggots develop slowly, reaching full size after the apples have dropped. They then leave the fruit and enter the soil to pupate, there being but one generation in most sections.

Control. The regular spray schedule for codling moth does not take care of this summer maggot. An additional lead arsenate spray (3 pounds per 100 gallons) is required in late June or early July. DDT is sometimes used. Picking up and destroying early dropped apples is always helpful.

CABBAGE MAGGOT (Hylemya brassicae).
If cabbage and broccoli seedlings wilt and turn yellow soon after transplanting, see if there are not a lot of small, white, legless maggots riddling roots and underground portions of the stem with brown tunnels (Figure 35). In some soils maggots kill 80% of crucifer seedlings; early turnips and late spring radishes are frequently injured. Gray flies, emerging from the soil about the time early cabbage is set out, lay white eggs at the base of the stem or in cracks in the ground nearby. Hatching in 3 to 7 days young larvae quickly find the roots, with up to 100 feeding on a single plant. The underground parts soon rot. There are 2 or more generations.

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