Types of Garden Enemies
Control. Working lindane into the top 6 to 8 inches of soil just before planting controls maggots but may impart an off-flavor to radishes. A proprietary compound, Carco-X, combining creosote and benzene hexachloride, is sold for maggot control. Calomel has been used, with 1/2 cup of mercurous chloride diluted 1 ounce to a gallon of water, poured around each plant soon after setting out, or as a dust, 1 part calomel mixed with 19 parts gypsum, talc, or lime.

CARROT RUST FLY (Psila rosae).
This maggot is injurious to carrots, parsnip, celeriac, and parsley in the Northeast and even more so in the Pacific Northwest. Plants are stunted or entirely destroyed. The name comes from the rusty color of larval excrement laid down in root tunnels. Soft-rot bacteria often follow the maggots. The small fly is dark green with yellow legs and head. Eggs laid about crown of host plants hatch into yellow maggots. There are two broods, sometimes a third.

Control. Early planting helps to avoid trouble. Chlordane dust applied in a 4-inch band along the row as soon as the plants come up is one recommendation. Calomel, diluted as for cabbage maggots, can be sprinkled along the row.

ONION MAGGOT (Hylemya antiqua).
Small white maggots bore through underground stems into bulbs, often mining out small onions completely. This is a serious pest in wet springs, unimportant in a dry season.

Control. Moisten seeds with gum arabic and then coat with calomel, using 2 parts by weight to 1 of seed, just before planting. Or use calomel in solution along the row, 1 ounce in 5 gallons of water applied at the rate of 1 gallon for each 25 feet of row.

SEED-CORN MAGGOT (Hylemya cilicrura).
Germinating seed of peas and beans are more often injured than corn; cucurbit sprouts are sometimes killed. The maggots are yellow white, 1/4 inch long, with sharply pointed heads. When they burrow in seed, it either fails to sprout or produces a sickly plant. Beans sometimes become ballheads with no foliage. The injury is increased in cold, wet seasons and on lands rich in organic matter. The winter is spent in puparia in soil or as free maggots in manure. In May, gray flies start laying eggs in soil or on seed; there are 3 to 5 generations.

Control. Avoid organic fertilizer in the seed row; plant after the soil warms up. Soil treatment with lindane or chlordane before planting may help. Reseed as soon as injury is discovered.

MAMMALS
Various warm-blooded animals are, at times, garden pests.

CATS.
Although they often mess up garden beds, cats seldom really injure plants. They do, of course, kill some birds and should be belled or restrained during the nesting season.




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