Types of Garden Enemies
AZALEA MEALYBUG (Eriococcus azaleae).
The correct name is bark scale, but it looks like a mealybug with its white cottony masses at axils of twigs and branches and has long been called that. This is a common and injurious enemy of outdoor azaleas through the South, devitalizing them and turning them black with quantities of sooty mold growing in the honeydew. In Alabama nymphs of the first generation hatch in April, those of the second in September.

Control. Two sprays of Volck or other summer oil (3 tablespoons Florida Volck or 41/2 tablespoons Nursery Volck, plus 2 tablespoons powdered derris and 1 teaspoon nicotine sulfate per gallon of water) have given reasonably good control. The first spray is applied in May, the second at the end of September. Commercial growers have been using parathion in recent years.

CITROPHILUS MEALYBUG (Pseudococcus gahani).
This long-tailed mealybug, with posterior filaments a third the length of the body, is common on citrus and many ornamental plants. It thrives in the cool coastal areas of California but can be kept under control by parasites imported from Australia.

CITRUS MEALYBUG (Pseudococcus citrt).
A short-tailed form, very common in greenhouses and on house plants-on African violet, coleus, begonia, fuchsia, cactus, poinsettia, and a long list of other ornamentals. The white powder is very dense, and the copious secretion of honeydew attracts ants which help to disseminate the mealybugs.

Control. It sometimes helps to syringe plants with water; house plants should have a weekly bath. Control ants by drenching nests with chlordane (3 tablespoons of 50% wettable powder to a gallon of water). Pick off occasional mealybugs by touching with a swab dipped in alcohol. For stubborn cases spray with summer oil (such as Volck at a 1 to 50 dilution), but keep plants in shade during and after treatment and rinse off with water after a few hours. Use phosphate bombs in greenhouses.

COMSTOCK MEALYBUG (Pseudococcus comstocki),
catalpa mealybug. This is another long-tailed mealybug, fairly widely distributed in temperate climates, a special enemy of apple and umbrella catalpa, some- times found on other trees. When clustered on apple twigs, the mealybugs resemble a mass of woolly aphids. On both apple and catalpa the bugs congregate around pruning scars and crevices and at limb crotches.

Control. Scrub the bark with a brush and soap and water. Spraying with DDT seems helpful for this particular mealybug, while parathion is apt to kill its parasites.

GRAPE MEALYBUG (Pseudococcus maritimus).
This is an omnivorous underground feeder in California where it injures grapes, pears, citrus, and English walnut as well as many ornamentals. In Florida it is found on avocado and tomato and appears in the North on stored gladiolus corms.

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