Types of Garden Enemies
GROUND MEALYBUG (Rhizoecus terrestris).
A California pest, sucking roots of Kentia palms, boxwood, privet, chrysanthemum, and other ornamentals. Drenching the soil with dichlorethyl ether (21/2 teaspoons to 1 gallon of water) has been recommended.

LONG-TAILED MEALYBUG (Pseudococcus adonidurn).
Widely distributed in greenhouses and outdoors in warm climates, feeding on avocado, citrus, and many ornamentals. There are 4 pencil-like filaments at the end of the body and as long as the body, perhaps longer. Females give birth to living young.

MEXICAN MEALYBUG (Phenacoccus gossypii).
Especially serious on chrysanthemums, often causing stunting and distortion of leaves, occa- sionally attacking leaves, stems, and flowers of coleus, gerbera, fuchsia, and calendula. This is a short-tailed mealybug, blue gray, covered with thin powder. I have had good luck spraying chrysanthemums in a client's greenhouse with TEPP, a poison to be used with caution.

TAXUS MEALYBUG (Pseudococcus cuspidatae).
This is prevalent on yew in New Jersey, New York, and Connecticut, probably elsewhere in the Northeast. I have seen shrubs so infested that when branches were parted the insects fell down in a white cloud, but ordinarily they are hard to see unless you closely examine stems and branch axils. Young nymphs winter in bark crevices and on maturing in June give birth to living young. There may be two or three broods.

Control. In my practice I have killed these mealybugs rather easily by spraying the interior of the bushes with nicotine sulfate and soap, or with Volck, 1 to 50 dilution, or with TEPP. DDT has been suggested but may lead to other problems.

Mealy flata (Ormenis pruinosa and 0. septentrionalis) are also called fulgorids, lantern flies, and lightning leafhoppers. Under any name, they are far more disturbing to gardeners in late summer than they are injurious to plants. Young nymphs feed on wood and herbaceous stems-box- wood, viburnum, and many other shrubs and some perennials. They are enveloped in a great cloud of white woolly matter which causes gardeners to worry about their being mealybugs or woolly aphids, but actual damage is very slight. Adults look like very large leafhoppers. One species is pale blue green, the other brownish covered with white powder. There is little point in control measures.

Midges are related to flies; they are very small, 2-winged insects in the order Diptera. Many species cause galls on plants, some kill buds.

s CHRYSANTHEMUM GALL MIDGE (Diarthronomyia hypogaea),
a greenhouse pest now found rather frequently in gardens as well. Small cone- shaped galls project from upper surface of stems and leaves (Figure 37C). In severe infestations the leaves are dwarfed and curled, the stems twisted, and flowers deformed and stunted.

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