Types of Garden Enemies
CODLING MOTH (Carpocapsa pomonella).
This is our worst apple pest; unless trees are sprayed several times, 20 to 90% of the fruit will be wormy. Pear, quince, crabapple, and English walnut are also injured. The full-grown larva, pinkish white with a brown head, 3/4 inch long, winters in a cocoon under loose bark or other shelter. It pupates in spring, and the small moth, gray with brown patches and bands, appears soon after apples bloom to lay eggs at dusk on leaves, twigs, and fruit spurs.

Young worms chew their way into the fruit, usually entering through the calyx cup and boring to the center, announcing their presence with dark masses of frass. Infested fruit drops prematurely. Control. DDT has given excellent control of codling moths even though it has increased mites. Lead arsenate is still recommended in some spray schedules, used at petal fall and in about 4 cover sprays, then switching to DDT for second brood codling moth sprays in late July and August.

Fig. 40

EUROPEAN PINE SHOOT MOTH (Rhyacionia buoliand).
Small ornamental pines, Scotch and mugho, and red pine in many sections, are disfigured by a small brown caterpillar with a black head. Hibernating as a partly grown larva in pine buds, in spring it bores into an uninfested bud or growing shoot. This becomes crooked, straw-colored and usually has a mass of pitch at the entrance point. Moths emerge from infested tips in June, continuing into July. They are small, 3/4 inch across, with reddish-orange forewings marked with silver cross lines. They lay eggs near twig tips, and in 10 days the caterpillars bore into needle bases and at the end of summer into buds for the winter.

Control. On small pines it is quite easy to reduce infestation by breaking of! dead crooked tips into a paper bag before moths lay eggs, always making sure you have the little caterpillar or pupa in the part broken off. Parathion has been used effectively in spraying plantations of red pines in July, and DDT is fairly good.

GRAPE BERRY MOTH (Polychrosis viteand).
Wherever grapes are grown but more often in the Northeast, berries are webbed together, turn dark purple, and drop when half grown. Or perhaps a small hole is eaten in the side of a nearly ripe fruit. Winter is passed in cocoons inside fallen grape leaves, with gray moths appearing at blooming time. They lay eggs on stems, flower clusters, and berries. The larvae are green, with brown heads, 1/2 inch long or less and they web together and destroy the berries as they feed, then pupate inside a folded flap on a leaf. There are normally 2 generations a season.

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