Types of Garden Enemies
The tiny young larvae, green with shiny black heads (Figure 47) work in gangs, demolishing one branch before going on to the next. They do not like the taste of new needles; so pines are usually left with long naked arms where old needles have been chewed to the base, and a brush of new leaves at the tip. First evidence of their presence is the turning straw-colored of a few old needles around the tip. When disturbed, the larvae react in unison, raising up their heads and rear ends. As they grow the larvae turn grayish green with white lines bordering a bright green stripe; at that time they are about an inch long. After a month or more of feeding they drop to the ground and spin reddish-gold cocoons. Adults look like large fuzzy flies, but with 2 pairs of wings; the males are nearly black, females yellow brown. There is only one brood.
Fig. 47

Control. Either lead arsenate or DDT applied early enough, usually late April, gives adequate control. If worms have already hatched, adding nicotine sulfate to the spray provides a quick kill. Natural parasites have been liberated in New Jersey, and a virus disease has been successfully applied by airplane to pine plantings.

The larvae are greenish yellow on top with a brown line down the back, their sides are brown with yellow spots. There are two broods, one feeding in May and June, the other in August and September. The second brood feeds on new as well as old needles.

RED-HEADED PINE SAWFLY (Neodiprion lecontei).
This species attacks at least a dozen kinds of ornamental pines, and larch, from Maine to Florida and west to Wisconsin and Louisiana, sometimes killing young trees. Larvae are yellow white with red to brown heads, several rows of black spots. Eggs are laid in slits in needles, and there are two overlapping broods; feeding is continuous from July through September.

Fig. 48

Three species infest roses. ROSE-SLUG {Endelomyia aethiops). The larva is a slimy velvety green worm, shaped something like a tadpole, not over 1/2 inch long. It appears in nearly every rose garden east of the Rockies, eating out all the soft part of leaves but not the veins and epidermis. Leaves that are mostly skeletonized turn crisp and brown; neophytes are apt to call this rust. Climbing roses and hybrid teas are attacked soon after roses leaf out, and feeding continues 4 to 6 weeks. There is only one generation, the larvae remaining in a capsule-like cell in the soil over winter and adults laying eggs in pockets in leaf tissue in spring.

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