Types of Garden Enemies
EUONYMUS SCALE (Unaspis euonymi).
Almost synonymous with euonymus, common also on bittersweet and pachysandra. Females look like dark-brown oyster shells, are 1/16 inch long. The males are white, almost needle thin and thickly encrust vines, twigs, and underside of leaves. Leaves turn yellow and drop; vines die. There are 2 or 3 generations, yellow crawlers appearing in May, late June, and August.

Control. A dormant spray, 1 part miscible oil to 15 parts water, applied when the temperature is above 45F., gives partial control but usually needs to be followed up by one or more sprays for crawling stages. A white oil, Volck, at 1 to 50 dilution with nicotine sulfate added works well if the temperature is under 85F., and DDT has been used by some for the crawlers. Recent work indicates that Malathon will be more satisfactory.

FERN SCALE (Pinaspis aspidistrae).
A pest of fern, aspidistra, and other house plants. The males are thin and white, the females oyster- shaped, light brown, often in sufficient numbers to make ferns very unsightly. If the scale is not prevented by frequent washing with soap and water, try Volck at a 1 to 50 dilution, keeping plants out of the sun after treatment.

FLORIDA RED SCALE (Chrysomphalus aoniduni).
An important citrus pest in Florida and the Gulf States, found also on camellias and many other southern ornamentals; in the North found on ivy and other house plants. The scale does not live on twigs but is abundant on both leaf surfaces and on fruit. The female is small, circular, reddish brown to nearly black with a lighter central portion (Figure 50B). Oil sprays are standard control, with parathion used by commercial growers.

GOLDEN OAK SCALE (Asterolecanium variolosum).
Young oaks in ornamental plantings are injured by small pits made in the bark, the scales lying in the depressions. The scale is circular, convex, polished, greenish gold, with a marginal fringe and minute glassy spines. Use a dormant oil spray, possibly parathion or Malathon for crawlers.

HEMISPHERICAL SCALE (Saissetia hemisphaerica).
This tortoise scale is found in greenhouses and in warm climates. The female is brown, very convex with a flared margin and no wax secreted, 1/8 inch long. It can often be rubbed off ferns, palms, and other ornamentals with a soft brush dipped in a nicotine-soap solution.

JUNIPER SCALE (Diaspis carueli).
This is the chief cause of the sickly junipers we see around houses in most suburbs. The scale is very small, round, dirty white, hard to see even when there are hundreds nestled in needles of a single twig (Figure 51B), but the results can be seen from a distance-a yellowing or browning or graying of the whole shrub.

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