Types of Garden Enemies
Control. If junipers are away from houses or other painted surfaces, spray with liquid lime-sulfur, 1 part to 9 of water, in April before new growth starts; otherwise use a miscible oil at a 1 to 30 dilution. I have had much better luck with lime-sulfur, but the fine spray drift does ruin paint.

MAGNOLIA SCALE (Neolecanium comuparvum).
This is a large soft scale fairly common on magnolia in eastern states. The females are up to 1/2 inch across, very convex, brown, honeycombed with pits and covered with white wax. Trees are sickly with small leaves covered with black sooty mold. There is only one generation, females producing living young in August.

Control. You can scrub off the scales with a stiff brush dipped in nicotine sulfate and soap or use a dormant oil spray.

OLEANDER SCALE, IVY SCALE (Aspidiotus hederae).
A special pest of ivy and oleander but also found on many other ornamentals outdoors in the South, indoors in the North. The scale is circular, flat, pale yellow, 1/10 inch long. Use Volck or other contact sprays. Keep ivy washed off weekly.

OYSTERSHELL SCALE (Lepidosaphes ulmi).
This scale is almost inevitable on lilac, is found sometimes on peony stems and pachysandra and on many shrubs and trees. A closely related form occurs on apple, another on dogwood, and a very dark strain is harmful to boxwood. The scale is shaped like a miniature oyster shell (Figure 50E), is brownish gray, 1/8 inch long. Dying twigs and small branches are often completely encrusted. Eggs wintering under the female shell do not hatch until very late spring, sometimes June. Small white crawlers move around for a few hours, then insert their beaks and make their shells. Very small, yellowish-white, 2-winged males mate with females in late summer. There are one or two generations a year.

Control. Use a dormant spray, either a 1 to 15 dilution of miscible oil or 1 to 9 lime-sulfur or possibly a dinitro compound. Control crawlers with DDT or Malathon or nicotine sulfate and soap.

PINE NEEDLE SCALE (Phenacaspis pinifoliae).
This conspicuous pure white scale is common on pine needles, occasional on spruce, fir, and hemlock. The female varies somewhat in shape but is much wider at the lower end (Figure 51 A). The male is linear with 4 parallel ridges. Infested branches usually turn yellow. Reddish eggs, wintering under the shell, start hatching in June, or the end of May, new scales reaching maturity in late summer and laying eggs through the fall.

Control. Spray with lime-sulfur 1 to 9 dilution, or miscible oil at 1 to 30, in spring before new growth starts. Use a summer oil, as Volck 1 to 50 dilution, or nicotine sulfate, 11/2 teaspoons per gallon with soap, for summer crawlers.

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