SOFT SCALE (COCCUS hespendum).
This soft brown scale occurs on many
ornamentals and fruits outdoors in the South and in northern green-
houses. It is a rather flat tortoise scale, soft, brown or yellow marbled with
brown, or sometimes greenish, hard to see unless the infestation is large.
It is particularly destructive to ferns and produces a large amount of
honeydew with consequent smutting of foliage. This particular scale
not only is resistant to parathion but is increased by its use. Oil sprays
TEA SCALE (Fionnia theae).
This is very important on camellias in the
South, also on Chinese holly. Leaves are yellowed on the upper
surface and underneath are covered with white filaments in which live
brown, boat-shaped females and soft, thin, white males (Figure 50A).
Control. Oil sprays have been standard, using 6 level tablespoons
Florida Volck to a gallon of water right after blooming and repeating
the end of September with a milder dose, 41/2 tablespoons per gallon.
Parathion is now widely used by nurserymen.
TULIPTREE SCALE (Touymeyella liriodendri).
Prevalent on tuliptrees east
of the Rockies, sometimes on magnolia and linden. This is one
of the largest of the soft scales, 1/3 inch across, rich dark brown, very
convex but when large numbers are crowded together somewhat distorted out of their regular hemispherical shape (Figure 51D). Partly
grown nymphs, brown with lighter ridges, winter on twigs, mate in
spring and produce young in August.
Control. Use a dormant oil spray. The scales can usually be scrubbed
off ornamentals with a rag or brush and soapy water.
SLUGS AND SNAILS
Slugs and snails belong to the large animal phylum Mollusca, along
with oysters and clams. They have soft, unsegmented bodies usually
protected with a hard, calcareous shell. A slug is a snail without a shell.
They have 2 pairs of antennae, one for feeling, the other with eyes at the
tip; male and female reproductive organs are in the same individual. We
cuss out slugs in our eastern gardens, but on the West Coast they really
go to town.
There are several species of garden slugs, varying from 1/2 to 3 or 4
inches long. They are grayish or brown, sometimes black, legless, soft
and slimy, most repulsive to the touch. All slugs leave a slimy or mica-
like trail, colorless or somewhat milky. Slugs feed at night, but you can
tell where they have been working by large irregular holes eaten out of
leaves near the ground-specially hollyhocks, violets, primroses, hosta,
delphinium-and by their trail of slime. During the day slugs hide in
damp dark places, under boards or garden trash, in soil cracks, or under
pots or flats or walks in greenhouses. Eggs are laid in masses, held together with slime, in the same damp places.