Types of Garden Enemies
SOFT SCALE (COCCUS hespendum).
This soft brown scale occurs on many ornamentals and fruits outdoors in the South and in northern green- houses. It is a rather flat tortoise scale, soft, brown or yellow marbled with brown, or sometimes greenish, hard to see unless the infestation is large. It is particularly destructive to ferns and produces a large amount of honeydew with consequent smutting of foliage. This particular scale not only is resistant to parathion but is increased by its use. Oil sprays are effective.

TEA SCALE (Fionnia theae).
This is very important on camellias in the South, also on Chinese holly. Leaves are yellowed on the upper surface and underneath are covered with white filaments in which live brown, boat-shaped females and soft, thin, white males (Figure 50A).

Control. Oil sprays have been standard, using 6 level tablespoons Florida Volck to a gallon of water right after blooming and repeating the end of September with a milder dose, 41/2 tablespoons per gallon. Parathion is now widely used by nurserymen.

TULIPTREE SCALE (Touymeyella liriodendri).
Prevalent on tuliptrees east of the Rockies, sometimes on magnolia and linden. This is one of the largest of the soft scales, 1/3 inch across, rich dark brown, very convex but when large numbers are crowded together somewhat distorted out of their regular hemispherical shape (Figure 51D). Partly grown nymphs, brown with lighter ridges, winter on twigs, mate in spring and produce young in August.

Control. Use a dormant oil spray. The scales can usually be scrubbed off ornamentals with a rag or brush and soapy water.

Slugs and snails belong to the large animal phylum Mollusca, along with oysters and clams. They have soft, unsegmented bodies usually protected with a hard, calcareous shell. A slug is a snail without a shell. They have 2 pairs of antennae, one for feeling, the other with eyes at the tip; male and female reproductive organs are in the same individual. We cuss out slugs in our eastern gardens, but on the West Coast they really go to town.

There are several species of garden slugs, varying from 1/2 to 3 or 4 inches long. They are grayish or brown, sometimes black, legless, soft and slimy, most repulsive to the touch. All slugs leave a slimy or mica- like trail, colorless or somewhat milky. Slugs feed at night, but you can tell where they have been working by large irregular holes eaten out of leaves near the ground-specially hollyhocks, violets, primroses, hosta, delphinium-and by their trail of slime. During the day slugs hide in damp dark places, under boards or garden trash, in soil cracks, or under pots or flats or walks in greenhouses. Eggs are laid in masses, held together with slime, in the same damp places.

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