Types of Garden Enemies
Control. Cleaning up the garden is always a good idea. Spraying or dusting plants most likely to be eaten with DDT or lead arsenate will keep them from being chewed up. Ashes or lime around plants deter slugs for they don't like to crawl through such materials. Most baits for slugs contain metaldehyde, which attract slugs and then kills them. It is available under such trade names as Bug-Geta Pellets, Snarol, Meta- meal, etc., and combined with chlordane, as Snailicide. Put bait out under boards or jar covers if you would protect your bird friends. Last week I saw a "garage" for slugs pictured in a garden magazine-a tin can cut in half lengthwise and fastened to a board in quonset-hut fashion. The board kept the bait from disintegrating, and the cover enticed the slugs as well as keeping the poison away from birds and pets.
Fig. 52

is a special California problem, eating grasses, vegetables, flowers, shrubs, and trees, especially citrus. Tree trunks are often covered with the shells, an inch wide, grayish with brown bands. Eggs are laid in soil nests, the young taking 2 years to reach maturity. Hand pick the snails where you can and use slug bait. A barrier of lime on the soil around trees will keep snails away.

Smuts are named for their sooty black spore masses. They are important on grains and grasses, not too common on ornamentals. Corn and onion smuts appear in backyard gardens.

Fig. 53

CORN SMUT (Ustilago zeae).
Very large boils are formed in ears, on stalks or tassels. They are first covered with a greenish-white membrane, but this soon splits to expose myriads of dark spores. The smut thrives in warm weather, and the spores survive in animal manures. Control. In small plantings, watch for and remove the boils before they break open. Dusting with rotenone, DDT, or Ryania to control corn borers reduces the amount of smut. Clean up and burn all stalks after harvest.

ONION SMUT (Urocystis cepulae).
The disease is important in all onion- growing sections in the North but not much of a problem where onions are grown from sets rather than seed. Black, elongated spore pustules are formed on leaves, black or brown pustules on bulbs. Young plants are killed, others stunted.

Control. Seed can be treated with Arasan, or the soil with Tersan mixed with an insecticide for maggots, or thiram can be broadcast with fertilizer and lightly harrowed in. An older method is to use formaldehyde in the row after the seeds are dropped and before covering: 1 tea- spoon formalin to 1 quart of water, applying 3 quarts of this dilution per each 100 feet or row.

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